درباره دوکوویکی بیاموزید
درباره دوکوویکی بیاموزید
DokuWiki — like most wikis — is very open by default. Everyone is allowed to create, edit and delete pages. However sometimes it makes sense to restrict access to certain or all pages. This is when the Access Control List (ACL) comes into play. This page gives an overview of how ACLs work in DokuWiki and how they are configured.
ACLs can be enabled in the installer and an initial ACL policy is set there as well. To manually enable ACLs, switch on the useacl option and create a copy of the example files ''conf/acl.auth.php.dist'' and ''conf/users.auth.php.dist''. Rename the files to ''conf/acl.auth.php'' and ''conf/users.auth.php'' respectively.
There are a few more config options and features that relate to authentication, user registration and ACL setup. Please check their respective wiki pages to get more information:
WARNING: DokuWiki's ACL feature has been included for some time and should be pretty stable. However, if you are concerned about the risk of unauthorized users accessing information in your wiki, you should never put it on a computer accessible from the Internet.
Access restrictions can be bound to pages and namespaces. There are seven permissions: none, read, edit, create, upload, delete and admin. Each higher permission contains the lower ones, with read being the lowest and delete the highest one. You should note that create, upload and delete permissions can only be assigned to namespaces.
Rules that were set to namespaces apply on media namespaces as well as for page namespaces.
When DokuWiki checks which rights it should give to a user, it uses all rules matching the user's name or the groups he or she is in. The rule that provides a user's permission is chosen according to the following process:
Users are in the groups they were assigned to in the user manager (or the auth backend). However there are two groups that are somewhat special:
Groups are represented internally and in the ACL manager by a prepended
@ character to the group name.
Basically there are three steps to add a new ACL rule:
Existing rules can be modified or deleted in the table at the bottom of the ACL manager.
In this section we will explain how access rules work, using a fictional example setup that looks like this in the ACL manager:
Let's have a look at each line:
develnamespace is restricted. Nobody is allowed to do anything.
develnamespace, but read only.
funstuffpage—remember exact pagematches override namespace permissions.
devel:marketingpage as well.
marketingare set. All members of the marketing group are allowed to upload there—other users will be matched by line 1 so they can still create and edit. bigboss inherits their rights from line 2 so they can still upload and delete files.
Let's have a look at a second example to better understand specific matching:
- Should the group be changed to @user in the table, which I thought was the default group?
This time we look what rules will match for different users when trying to access the page
Note rule #5, which appears to duplicate rule #3. Without it, staff members wouldn't be able to access the private namespace as rule #4 would keep them out.
Access restrictions are saved in a file called
conf/acl.auth.php, which should be writable by the webserver if you want to use the ACL admin interface described above. It is not recommended to edit this file manually. Use the admin interface instead.
Empty lines and shell-style comments are ignored. Each line contains 3 whitespace separated fields:
There are 7 permission levels represented by an integer. Higher levels include lower ones. If you can edit you can read, too. However the admin permission of 255 can not be used in the
conf/acl.auth.php file. It is only used internally by matching against the superuser option.
|Name||Level||applies to||Permission||DokuWiki constant|
|none||0||pages, namespaces||no permission—complete lock out||AUTH_NONE|
|read||1||pages, namespaces||read permission||AUTH_READ|
|edit||2||pages, namespaces||existing pages may be edited||AUTH_EDIT|
|create||4||namespaces||new pages can be created||AUTH_CREATE|
|upload||8||namespaces||mediafiles may be uploaded||AUTH_UPLOAD|
|delete||16||namespaces||mediafiles may be overwritten or deleted||AUTH_DELETE|
|admin||255||admin plugins||superuser1) can change admin settings||AUTH_ADMIN|
Here is an example setup matching the first example given above:
* @ALL 4 * bigboss 16 devel:* @ALL 0 devel:* @devel 8 devel:* bigboss 16 devel:* @marketing 1 devel:funstuff bigboss 0 devel:marketing @marketing 2 marketing:* @marketing 8 start @ALL 1
Please note that order does not matter in the file. The file is parsed as whole, then a perfect match for the current page/user combo is searched for. When a match is found further matching is aborted. If no match is found, group permissions for the current page are checked. If no match is found the check continues in the next higher namespace.
Note: To configure users or groups with special chars (like whitespaces) you need to URL escape them. This only applies to specialchars in the lower 128 byte range. The ACL file uses UTF-8 encoding so any multibytechars can be written as is.
Note: When using $conf['authtype'] = 'ad'; and groups names with spaces needing to be written in the acl.auth.php with a «%5f» replacing the spaces instead of «%20». This is because Group names with spaces are first converted into underscores «_» which are «%5f».
Note: The delete permission affects media files only. Pages can be deleted (and restored) by everyone with at least edit permission. Someone who has upload permissions but no delete permissions can only overwrite existing media files if the media revisions option is enabled.
It is possible to use user and group wildcards in the ACLs. This can be useful for Wikis with many registered users, if you want to give each user or group a personal namespace where only he/she has write access, and you don't want to edit the ACLs for each of them. To accomplish that
%USER% is replaced by the username of the currently logged in user and
%GROUP% by all the groups of this user.
In the following example a logged-in user gains full access (upload/delete) permissions for the user's namespace
user:<username>:* and revoke all access from other namespaces located in
In this case logged-in user has access to own namespace only and have not access to users namespaces (even view names of namespaces) of other users.
# # Grant full access to logged in user's namespace user:%USER%:* %USER% 16 # # Allow to browse own namespace via the index user: %USER% 1 # # Allow read only access to start page located in "user" namespace user:start %USER% 1 # # Disable all access to user's home namespaces not owned by logged in user # (include view namespaces via the index) user:* @user 0 # # Allow members of 'group' to edit pages in the 'group' namespace. # BE CAREFUL, if you have a 'user' namespace, all members of the default group # will gain access to it since %GROUP% will be replaced literally %GROUP%:* %GROUP% 2
Note: version 2009-12-25c «Lemming» has some caveat. If you add, update or remove ACL entries from the admin interface then DokuWiki will replace %USER% in the second field of the ACL to
%25USER%25 (this is bug FS#1955). To avoid this, change permissions manually only (by editing:
conf/acl.auth.php) or correct them manually after each operation in the admin interface because
%25USER%25 does not work as expected, only
%USER% should be used in the
conf/acl.auth.php. This bug is fixed in newer versions.
Note: The wildcard changed from @ to % in December 2008 – if you are upgrading from an older version you need to adjust your ACL setup accordingly.